Cellaring Tobacco and Factors that Influence the Aging Process

Acquiring tobacco and letting it age for years is one of the most rewarding aspects of pipe smoking, granting us the opportunity to appreciate how the flavor profile of our favorite blends can change or improve with time. Often referred to as "cellaring," purchasing tobacco with the intent to let it age is a somewhat newer phenomenon that has gained popularity in recent years. For many decades, few manufacturers and blenders were concerned about what happened to their mixtures after they were tinned, primarily because they were created for immediate enjoyment and consumption. In modern times, many blends are known to age wonderfully, especially those that contain Virginia tobaccos due to their naturally high sugar content and the way they interact with other blending components. Some manufacturers even create mixtures specifically formulated for long-term storage, such as Cornell and Diehl's Cellar Series, though they can be enjoyed at any age.

It takes patience and self-restraint, but the rewards of investing in blends and waiting to enjoy them can be spectacular. Mixtures that we find to be average can be dramatically enhanced with age and become our new daily smoke, while blends that initially appalled our palates can find a second chance after some time. And for the blends we love, their flavors can be elevated to greater heights and create memorable smoking experiences. With time and experimentation, we can determine which tobaccos are our favorites, making the decision on which blends to age easier and enabling us to expand our cellars.

I've learned several things in regard to cellaring during my time at Smokingpipes and have continued to incorporate these methods in my purchasing of blends to age. Whenever I open a tin of one of my favorite blends, I replace it with one or two tins of that same blend. By ensuring I have more tins stashed away than I smoke, I'll eventually have a greater selection of blends with at least a few years of age on them. My personal cellar is mainly dedicated to Virginia and Virginia-Perique blends, especially Orlik Golden Sliced, Escudo Navy Deluxe, and the beloved Dunhill blends brought back by Peterson.

In terms of properly storing and protecting your future investment, factory-sealed tins just need to be stored in a cool, dry place and out of direct sunlight. Transferring the contents to another storage device can be done but is unnecessary as it's best to leave the contents in the tin for optimal aging and fermentation. However, if the seal becomes compromised, the tobacco should immediately be transferred to a secure container. It's always a good idea to periodically check the seals on tins and look for signs of rust or oxidation that can potentially compromise the tobacco.

Some tins feature a factory date stamp or sticker indicating when it was manufactured, but for those that don't have a date listed, it's best to label them with the date you added them to your cellar by using a marker or label, though a spreadsheet can also be employed for large cellars. For bulk tobacco or anything that doesn't come in sealed tins, mason jars, humidified tobacco containers, and ceramic jars are the best options to ensure a tight seal that will preserve the tobacco.

Once it's decided which blends you plan on cellaring there are a few variables to consider that influence the aging process. A previous blog post by Chuck discussed the effects of aging tobacco, the impact the curing process has on aging blends, and the chemical changes that occur inside a tinned blend. From a broader perspective, there are a few variables that influence how tobacco ages. Much like organic chemistry, whenever a new variable is introduced to tobacco, a series of reactions occur that change the final results.

For tobacco, example variables could include the conditions in which the tobacco was processed and blended, the type of leaf used to create the blend, and its storage conditions. The possibilities are endless, and even though manufacturers take steps to ensure consistency with each blend they produce, the quality and character of the leaves used can also vary from year to year. Beyond that, the manner and environment in which we store tobacco when cellaring can further influence the fermentation process. An article by Tad Gage in the winter 2007 edition of Pipes and tobaccos magazine piqued my interest in exploring what influences the aging process of tobacco.

Here are a few factors affecting how tobacco ages to keep in mind when cellaring blends:

How Air Affects Tobacco Aging

How much air the tobacco is exposed to has a significant impact on how it will age, specifically the air in the interior and exterior of the tobacco container. Blends that are securely vacuum sealed will see considerably less air exposure compared to tobacco that's stored in bags or containers that are not airtight.

Air exposure is actually a good thing for tobacco, though it depends to what degree. Tobacco that's vacuum sealed will still age and ferment, but at a slower rate and will experience less change compared to tobacco that's exposed to more air, whether it be in the original tin or a different container it's stored in. That's primarily because the microscopic organisms within the tobacco need air to survive and continue the fermentation process, ultimately enhancing the flavor of cellared blends.

When using a jar, it's recommended to fill the jar loosely and leave some space at the top before sealing while making sure there is no debris around the rim as it could potentially compromise the seal. Packing the jar loosely and having open space near the top allows some air to be present in the jar, enabling the tobacco to continue to ferment and the flavors of the components to further marry.

How Moisture Affects Tobacco Aging

As a variable in the aging process of tobacco, moisture here refers to the levels contained in the blend when it's tinned as well as any subsequent moisture that's introduced intentionally or unintentionally. If tobacco is vacuum sealed in a tin or heavy duty food storage bags, the influence of external moisture will be minimal. But if tobacco is kept in loosely sealed containers, moisture levels will fluctuate depending on the surrounding environment.

How long the tobacco is stored impacts the tobacco's moisture levels, even when properly stored. Tins sealed for decades or opened tins that have been forgotten about may be extremely dry when opened but can be salvaged and brought back to life with proper rehydration techniques. When tobacco is cured it experiences multiple stages of drying and rehydrating as it's processed, so dry tobacco still has potential and can be rejuvenated to make it smokable again.

How Pressure Affects Tobacco Aging

The amount of pressure the tobacco is stored under can have an immense effect on the flavor profile of the blend. Generally speaking, tobacco can be stored in one of three ways: packed tightly into a container under significant pressure, packed loosely, or somewhere in between tight and loose. Even after weeks of being sealed in tins under pressure, the tobacco's flavors further marry and will continue for years if stored in an appropriate environment and climate. When air, moisture, and pressure are taken into account, the aging variables and possibilities are endless.

How Microorganisms Affect Tobacco Aging

Tiny, microscopic organisms within the tobacco at the time of packaging or introduced from airborne exposure will greatly influence how blends age. They're naturally occurring and unavoidable and the tobacco is constantly exposed to them from when it's harvested to when it's finally packaged. If you've ever seen an aged, sealed tin of tobacco with a pop-top lid, and observed how the top is slightly inflated, that is the result of microorganisms. Those microbes consume cellulose (starch) and create two important byproducts: sugar and carbon dioxide, which causes the lid to puff up.

When tobacco undergoes the fermentation process, it's exposed to several chemical and organic changes that help break down complex starches and carbohydrates into simpler sugars. Virginia tobaccos have the highest sugar content, averaging around 22 percent, and also have a significant amount of cellulose, which is what the microbes consume. As a result, tobaccos that contain some level of Virginia will show the most dramatic change when aged and benefit the most from long-term fermentation. English blends do age, just not to the degree of Virginia-based tobaccos, as English mixtures often contain Latakia and Oriental components, which have a considerably lower sugar content due to the way they're cured.

How Time Affects Tobacco Aging

Naturally, one of the most important variables is age itself — how long the tobacco is cellared. Cellaring tobacco is often compared to aging wine as both will undergo changes over time, developing more complex and rewarding flavors the longer they're aged. However, once wine matures and reaches its peak flavor at a certain point, it will eventually level off and deteriorate the longer it's aged. There's no true way to tell when tobacco reaches its "peak" age as it's a subjective assessment, but generally speaking, a few years is optimal and anything beyond that is a bonus.

Some pipe smokers have developed techniques of artificially aging tobacco, with one method consisting of baking tins in ovens at very low heat for a few hours. One popular approach is setting an oven to 200 degrees and cooking the tobacco anywhere from two to four hours. It's a compromise for those wanting a change in flavor in newly acquired mixtures, but nothing can replicate the effect that time has on aging tobacco. Please note: if anyone is curious about "cooking" their blends, be sure to take the plastic lids off tins to avoid a disastrous and messy situation. Some pipe smokers also recommend taking off the metal lids of mason jars and covering the tops with tin foil instead. A percentage up to around 40 percent of pop-top tins will pop during this procedure, so be aware of that factor, and place them on a baking sheet to catch tobacco that may fly out when a tin pops. For those who don't feel comfortable testing their culinary skills, exposing tins to heat in cars or closed garages may be a safer alternative though it won't reach the temperature an oven is capable of.

Cellaring tobacco is one of the most rewarding and gratifying aspects of pipe smoking. Once you have some blends cellared and have waited a few years, try to observe the differences compared to a fresh tin. If you purchased a blend you're not impressed with right away, give it some time and revisit it. The difference a few months or years can make is astounding. Aging tobacco allows us to further develop our palates and appreciate the complexities that await us.

What are some of your favorite blends to age? Are there any mixtures you've been planning to stock up on? I'm always looking to try some new blends.

Category:   Tobacco Talk
Tagged in:   Cellaring Tips Tobacco


    • Robert Kaul on August 22, 2020
    • Great source of information!

    • Arpie55 on August 22, 2020
    • I unintentionally left a blend in a car in 90 plus degree heat for several days, when I realized what I had done I was afraid I had ruined the tobacco, but when I smoked it I was amazed at the positive change in the profile. I have not tried to replicate the process but since reading about the artificial aging process, I might.

    • Daniel H Billings on August 23, 2020
    • Westminster and Black Mallory are two blends that, while are okay when new, become divine with age.

    • Guillermo Iriarte on August 23, 2020
    • Hello I greet you from Guatemala, I am aging my Va / per which is the type of tobacco that I like the most, but I have a question, is it possible to store sealed cans of aromatic tobacco for conservation and smoke later?

    • Jeff Neisler on August 23, 2020
    • Been cellaring tins for a number of years. I smoke mostly Virginia, Vapers & Burleys. A couple of things I've noticed is that ageing a blend may not necessarily make it better to your taste, just different. Another factor is your taste may change as well. For example, you mentioned Orlik & Escudo, 10 year old Orlik doesn't seem better to me to my taste that it does fresh, 10 year old Escudo is extremely better to me than it is fresh.

    • Richard Crist on August 23, 2020
    • What do you do with blends you tried and we’re ok. Then aged for a few years and still don’t excite your pallet? I bought a lot of tobacco in my first few years of smoking trying out what was highly rated. Now I’ve discovered blends I love and go to regularly and have dozens of tins I don’t know if I’ll ever enjoy.

    • John on August 23, 2020
    • Question for Jeff:You talk about several ways tobacco is stored such as bulk and tins. What about tobacco which is purchased in pouches such as John Bull and Missouri Meerschaum blends. I've ben placing the pouches in another containeras sealing them. Should I I do something different?Thanks, John

    • Jeffery on August 23, 2020
    • @John In regards to pouches, I believe transferring the contents to a more secure container is best. It's largely based on personal preference and depends on how long it'll take you to smoke the pouch. I just prefer to be cautious when dealing with bulk tobacco or anything that comes in pouches. Thank you for your question and I hope this helped!

    • Jeffery on August 23, 2020
    • @Guillermo You can certainly store aromatics for aging. Some pipe smokers feel aromatic mixtures don't dramatically improve or change with age like Virginia or Va./Per blends due to their toppings. However, the flavors may further marry and become smoother if the base tobacco has good sugar content. It would be interesting to observe the differences of an Aromatic blend over time and is definitely worth trying.

    • Chet King on August 23, 2020
    • I started a few years ago putting bulk tobacco (blended to my specifications) into Ball jars and vaccuum sealing those jars. They are kept on their side in a cabinet and rotated 180 degrees on the first of every month. From time to time I will transfer a small amount to a smaller ball jar that is not under vaccuum and smoke from that (smaller) jar, while re-vaccuuming the larger jar. I have had great success with my enjoyment of those bulk blends.

    • Thomas on August 23, 2020
    • Chet King, how do you vacum seal your ball jars? I really enjoy canning veggies, meat, etc, but had not considered trying to vacuum seal tobacco. I would like to give this a try.

    • paige simms on August 23, 2020
    • Thanks for the question Thomas. I'm wondering too

    • warren paige simms on August 23, 2020
    • I am wondering as well how to vacuum a Ball jar full of tobacco

    • DeQuincey on August 24, 2020
    • Vacuum sealing jars is relatively simple. Essentially, it's like canning, but at a lower temperature and less time in hot water.Fill the jars to about 80% of the jar's capacity. Heat water to 140-150 F, using a cooking thermometer to measure the temperature. Heating hot water makes it much faster than heating cold water, obviously. This isn't cooking, so no need to use cold water. Loosely tightened the lids (i.e. "hand" tightened), to allow air to escape as a result of the heating. Put the jars in the sink or some container. Place a weight over the jars, so they don't float around. Finally, pour the hot water to the level of the tobacco in the jars. Let them sit for 15 mins, then take the jars of out of the water and let them cool down. Finally, gently test the seals and tighten the lids completely.I also "pre-heat' the sink with boiling water. It was surprising to see how quickly the water cooled when I poured it into a cold sink, though the jars still seemed to seal.I over did it buying bulk (and tinned) blends. So, I had to do something to reduce the maintenance (i.e. avoid needing to rehydrating them before they were completely dry). Now that I think of it, not only do I need to inventory my bulk blends, I also need to check the seals on all of them, as I've only spot checked a few. These are the two posts I used as guides:https://www.pipesandcigars.com/faq/aging-pipe-tobacco/1818129/http://www.cornellanddiehl.com/the-latest-details.cfm?id=17

    • Mark Kunkler on August 24, 2020
    • I’m getting to old to get into “ cellaring “ :(

    • Thomas on August 24, 2020
    • Thank you DeQuency for the information. I am going to try this.

    • John Zermani on August 24, 2020
    • The article refers to tobacco being tinned under pressure. All the tobacco tins I've ever purchased with intact seals are stored under partial, but significant, vacuum. The concavity of the tin is the indication. Tins can develop pressure, and even rupture, due to microbiotic activity as reported but that is not an inevitable consequence of the tinning process.

    • Wade on August 24, 2020
    • I began aging tobacco twenty years ago, setting aside a significant cellar. I have a dozen or so blends that have reached the twenty years old mark, that I am enjoying this year. I have two half pound trays of Esoterica Penzance that are now twenty years old. They contain Syrian Latakia, which hasn't been available for several years now. I just opened one of the trays, that is sealed with mylar, and smoked several bowls this week. It is a sublime smoke, very incense like, and an incredible experience. It's one of several latakia blends that I've aged, the rest them are the Dunhills (all the usual suspects). I put down mostly Virginia Perique, and some straight Virginia. This year, with the threat of the Deeming Regulations looming, I invested about $7k into a tremendous selection of pipe tobacco blends, about half of it was tinned, and the other half was bulk (placed in mason jars). My cellar looks like the inventory of a mid sized retailer, it's doubtful that I will ever need to buy pipe tobacco again, but I certainly might want to!

    • Erik Burger on November 15, 2020
    • I am completely new to all of this but I am old enough to grasp the idea of how things get better with age. I learned a lot from this article and I look forward to starting my own tobacco collection.

    • Khalid Mansour on April 18, 2021
    • What is the suitable Humidity for tobacco? 69%, 72%, 75%, or the climatic conditions of the area in which the tobacco is stored control the degree of humidity suitable for use with tobacco. Meaning, it may be desirable to use 75% in one area because it is drier than in another area, and so on

    • Gab on August 28, 2021
    • Ageing is an anaerobic process, saying that tobacco exposed to air will age better is wrong.Air is needed for the initial stage of the ageing process performed by aerobic bacteria, after that, once the air in the container is consumed, anaerobic bacteria start taking over.That’s why tins can age and improve for many years even though there is barely any air in them…The part where you say that air tight vacuumed tins or containers will slower the tobacco because they don’t allow air is just wrong and confusing for newbies.Feeds the online myth that ageing jars and tins need to be periodically opened which instead stops the ageing…

    • Gabriel R on December 18, 2021
    • If I were to seal all my tobaccos in ball jars and vacuum seal them; how will that affect the aging process? Will it essentially be the same as if I left them in tins?

    • Wade on December 24, 2021
    • I started cellaring tobacco twenty years ago, but quite by accident. I had a bunch of tins "go missing", a whole box full of my favorite blends. The box turned up during a move. It was misplaced during a previous move and ended up in the attic for fifteen years. I was overjoyed to find it, and I didn't really expect it to be any different than it was fifteen years previously. Boy was I suprised! Everything I opened was a least fifteen years old, and they had become "magic". I had a dozen tins of Escudo, and another ten tins of Orlik Golden Sliced. There were another twenty five tins of various blends, mostly Virginia Perique. But the real surprise was the two 8oz trays of Penzance! Not the modern iteration of Penzance with Cyprian latakia, but the old one with Sirian latakia, which hasn't been produced in the past ten years due to civil war. The experts predict that there will not be any more latakia made in Siria, ever, so it made this find even more spectacular. I still have one 8oz tray sealed in the mylar bag, and a little bit of the other one still in a mason jar. I have been aging tobacco ever since!

    • Robert on February 5, 2022
    • Interested in your thoughts:I have a few tobaccos (such as Virginia/perique blends) that I've packed in airtight jars and have had them cellared for a few years. When I placed them in the jars, I left space at the top for air. Occasionally, I open the top, breathe in the flavors, and seal the top again. What do you think are the effects (pros and/or cons) of periodically letting fresh air into the jars while they're cellaring? Would the new air take away from the aging process or would it enhance it, perhaps?

    • Roger Bell on February 15, 2022
    • I have been experimenting with Stokkebye Navy Flake sealed in a mason jar. After about a year, it has changed a lot and is absolutely delicious. I have found that opening the jar about once a month to allow air exchange helps the process.

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